Black tarp, plywood, plexiglass, tubes, clamps, and a bucket is all you need to make a thermosiphoning Simple Solar Water heater according to Renewable Energy UK. This set up looks a lot like a maze. Except instead of a little ball, water shoots up through the small space between the plexiglass and the tarp. As it heats up, the water passes over the hot black tarp surface, disinfecting it. It travels upwards (known as thermosiphoning) as the temperature increases which increases the flow and therefore gives pollutants in the water a longer time to decay. The tubes connect the water in the bucket to the “maze” and are clamped in place. This setup is an estimated $30 but can also be made out of recycled parts. Some designs attach the water tank directly to the “maze” without using tubes. Shown below is a Simple Solar Water Heater in Pakistan
Kataka Seed. What is it? It comes from the Clearing Nut Tree and is sometimes used in India as a coagulant. What does that all mean? Coagulation can be compared to ion solvation in water. Essentially, the coagulant will bond to the suspended particles in the water that cause it to be muddy, and settle out the particles at the bottom of the water, allowing the clean water to be taken from the top. There’s a lot of existing research on this because the method of using crushed Kataka seeds to line water pots and other containers has been around since the dawn of written text. Here is a link on more reading.
According to the World Health Organization, “Globally, there are nearly 1.7 billion cases of diarrhoeal disease every year”. Diarrhea is the number one cause of malnutrition in children under 5. It kills 760,000 children under five years old each year. Diarrheal illness can be caused by contaminated food or water, or lack of sanitation practices. Children come into contact with feces through many routes, like unwashed hands, open sewage, groundwater, or insects. The major route that SODIS closes off is contamination through water.